Guest blog post by Sasha Miller, Purplebrown Farmstead and Farm Store
More folks should discuss the farm bill when it renews every five years because it affects so much of our society through its policies and funding allocations. The farm bill not only determines in part what we eat and how much it costs, but also influences the wages of workers, who is able to become a farmer, the level of social support for improving food access, and what type of support is provided at all.
And, in the context of current climate challenges, the farm bill has a major impact on our collective carbon footprint, by encouraging certain agricultural production methods through its policies. For instance, conventional agriculture practices include nitrogen and topsoil runoff, major algae blooms in our lakes, methane pollution from CAFOs, and deforestation of vital forests for pasture and crops. These practices are incentivized through the farm bill and other USDA programs and lead to climate instability, tragic droughts, more frequent floods, wildfires, and more.
Organic farmers have remained motivated to produce healthy food in healthy soil, in spite of social, economic, and political challenges. Because we’ve always known—and by now sufficient scientific research has proven—that organic practices are essential for healthy soil, healthy food, and a healthy planet. Small organic farms can, and must, carry the awesome burden of nourishing our communities if we are to see a brighter future for our planet.
Supporting Small and Sustainable
Small organic farms stimulate local economies and keep more dollars in communities, improve the quality of life for neighbors, and create meaningful job opportunities for diverse people. It would be extreme to say that small organic farms can feed the world, but they sure can steer us toward a more stable climate and healthy society. Still, major obstacles remain in place to expand organic production for wider benefit, because our policies are decided by those involved.
This year, the farm bill can substantially correct the course to positively and immediately affect our climate and social welfare, with a focus on organic production and small, diversified farms. Senator Sherrod Brown, a long-time supporter of small organic farms, is sponsoring several marker bills that promote soil health and climate resilience, support beginning and BIPOC farmers, strengthen regional and local food systems, and invest in organic and sustainable research. All these programs would meaningfully impact our collective future, as part of the 2023 Farm Bill.
Give the Farm Bill the Attention it Deserves
I encourage everyone to call their representative, talk to a neighbor, and learn more about the 2023 Farm Bill. It doesn’t get the attention it deserves. Do we want to see more quaint little farms dotting the rural countryside, growing organic food, employing local workers, and keeping our communities healthy? Or, do we want to continue with the large polluting farms, increasing weather extremes, and poor rural communities desperate for financial support? The future is clearly related to what happens with the 2023 Farm Bill.
Guest blog post by Amanda Hernandez, OEFFA Policy Intern
Earlier this month, the Chairman of the House Committee on Agriculture, Glenn “GT” Thompson, announced that Congress will have to temporarily extend the 2018 Farm Bill because it will miss the September 30 deadline for enacting its successor. If you are someone who produces or eats food, this extension is extremely vital.
In brief, the farm bill is a piece of legislation that is renewed every five years and affects our entire food system. It encompasses a variety of programs, from farm subsidies to food assistance. There are two deadlines within the farm bill—the first being September 30, which is the end of the fiscal year (FY), and the second is December 31 which is the end of the crop year. These dates are of high importance because some programs may expire after the FY deadline, while others expire after the crop year.
So, What Happens if the Farm Bill Expires?
For some agricultural programs, the farm bill’s expiration leads to the reversion of permanent (previous) laws. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 and the Agricultural Act of 1949 are considered “permanent” laws and when the farm bill is passed every five years it supersedes these two previous laws. The crops that fall under these laws are dairy, wheat, rice, cotton, and corn. According to a report published on August 21 by the Congressional Research Service, if, for example, a new farm bill is not passed by the end of the crop year, then on January 1, 2024, the USDA is required to support these eligible commodities at levels that exceed 2023 market prices. For example, the USDA would have to buy milk at $50.70 per 100 pounds which is more than 2.5 times the current market price.
Congress can extend certain programs by passing separate funding bills to give agencies funding for ongoing operations. Other programs in the farm bill receive mandatory funding. This is a really important point as those programs do not have to ask for funding during the annual appropriations process when Congress decides which priorities they choose to fund. There are two types of mandatory-funded programs—those with baseline budgets and those without. A program without a baseline budget imposes budgetary costs that require authorization or an extension from Congress to continue.
For instance, in 2008, Congress enacted a one-year extension of the farm bill, but it was required to be “budget-neutral.” This led to Congress not extending the mandatory funding for programs without a baseline budget. Below are some of the major programs within the 2018 Farm Bill and how not having a new farm bill in place will affect them.
Breakdown of Programs
Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP)
Policy provisions that will expire at the end of the fiscal year:
- Livestock funding
- Payment limits
- Organic payment limits
Policy provisions that are extended until fiscal year 2031:
- Wildlife habitat funding
- Air quality funding
- On-Farm Conservation Innovation Trials
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Programs that are permanently authorized and funded:
- Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP)
- Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (GusNIP)
Programs that could continue IF funding is provided in appropriations acts:
- SNAP and related grant programs (i.e., work training)
- Purchase and distribution of The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) commodities
- Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR)
- Nutrition assistance funding for Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands
- Community food projects
Programs that would require extension or specific appropriations language:
- Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program
Potentially Stranded Programs
Programs that may not have the authority to operate or continue to receive new budget authority after the fiscal year 2023:
Title III: Trade
- Market Access Program (MAP)
- Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program
- Emerging Markets Program (EMP) and technical assistance for specialty crops
Title VII: Research
- Organic Agricultural Research and Extension Initiative (OREI)
Title IX: Energy
- Biobased Market Program
Title X: Horticulture
- Specialty Crop Block Grant Program
- Local Agriculture Market Program (LAMP)
- National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program
Title XII: Miscellaneous
- Farming Opportunities Training and Outreach (FOTO) Program
- Socially Disadvantaged and Veteran Farmers and Ranchers Program (“2501 Program”)
- Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP)
- Animal disease prevention and management programs
- Emergency Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund
Using the Delay to Your Advantage
Considering the farm bill affects everyone in the food system, please let your members of Congress know what is important to you and what you want given priority within the 2023 Farm Bill. Take advantage of this critical window of opportunity by making your voice heard! Visit action.oeffa.org/your-farm-bill to access fact sheets, talking points, and other resources to support your advocacy efforts.
The National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC) is a coalition of grassroots organizations that focuses on advancing sustainable agriculture and food systems. NSAC accomplishes these goals by advocating for federal policy reforms. Across this network, relationships are built so that we can achieve a nationwide reach of fighting for just, sustainable, and equitable food systems.
OEFFA became a member of NSAC when our policy program was developed more than 11 years ago. Being a member means that we bring issues of importance to our members to the table and are part of the decision-making process. We work together to advance policy to support small and mid-size farmers, protect natural resources, promote healthy rural communities, and ensure equal access to healthy, nutritious food.
Envisioning a Better Food System
NSAC’s vision of agriculture is similar to what we value here at OEFFA: one where a safe, nutritious, ample, and affordable food supply is produced by a community of family farmers who make a decent living pursuing their trade—while stewarding the environment and contributing to the strength and stability of their communities. All pieces of this vision relate to OEFFA’s narrative by focusing on the whole picture of a person, what makes them unique, what is important to them, and treating the world as a regenerative system that we must not just exploit but appreciate and protect.
Together, the alliance of grassroots perspectives helps level the playing field against dominant big agribusiness corporations. Those on the ground are often overlooked and stories from our peers are not always on the top of a member of Congress’ desk. OEFFA and other NSAC members like us bring grassroots voices, problems, and solutions to the table to ensure that the needs of communities are being met.
Within NSAC, we gather input from farmers, educators, and producers from diverse backgrounds to direct our policy work. Community members are empowered by being represented when policy issues are shared with members of Congress and federal agencies like the USDA and EPA. This encourages engagement in our policy processes and advances our narrative for change in the sustainable agriculture movement. The power of doing this together with approximately 50 member organizations and many other supporters is a true example of a grassroots movement.
NSAC has led in the development of working lands conservation programs such as the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). The coalition has also supported beginning farmers through the creation of the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP). Aside from the clear big wins like these two programs, there have been hundreds of examples where—working together—we make programs work better for people and advance a truly sustainable agriculture and food system.
Being NSAC members provides benefits that go beyond the policy arena—it allows us to be in community with one another. In each area of the country, we face specific environmental challenges that directly affect our food supply chain. NSAC provides a space for information sharing, strategizing, and holding emotions about the many difficulties related to dealing with the climate crisis and food systems challenges.
NSAC 2023 Summer Meeting
Two members of our team, Amalie and Nicole, just traveled to Boulder, Colorado for the summer NSAC 2023 conference. We were able to be in deep conversation with one another on pushing farm bill priorities across the United States. We collaborated on ways to broaden the reach of local food systems, promote climate-friendly farming, support beginning and BIPOC farmers, and invest in the future through sustainable and organic research.
This diverse, transformative group provides so many opportunities and we encourage you to check them out!
Many of our marker bill priorities are in response to advocacy by NSAC and other coalitions. Learn more about how you can advance them in the 2023 Farm Bill by reaching out to our team at email@example.com for support. We are stronger together!
Hey there! My name is Nicole Wolcott, and I am new to the OEFFA policy team. I am thrilled to join this amazing group. Over the past five years, I have been so lucky to have incredible mentors that have coached me in building relationships and movements. I am passionate about making connections and helping to build healthy communities. Now, in this role with OEFFA, I can combine my organizing skills with my love for organic foods.
Growing up in the organic food industry, I often thought about why I had such an easy time accessing healthy foods. I found myself wondering, “Why is this a privilege and not a right?” Since moving to Cincinnati, I’ve been diligent in working to broaden my understanding of the inequities and challenges in the food system. Without a background in farming, there is a lot I need to learn.
As I got started in this position, I was introduced to many names, acronyms, policies, and pieces of literature. It was certainly overwhelming and a real example of “drinking through a firehose.”
Diving into all this information, there were key things I was disheartened to notice that I wasn’t taught as a kid or even know as an adult. The modern food system is complicated and contains so many players. It serves certain interest groups for this work to feel too complex to bother learning. If we don’t engage, they keep their power. Whether those with power are stewarding their communities’ best interests is a long conversation—but I believe we all have power. We can use it to have shared responsibility and respect for our communities and natural resources.
Shaping Our Food System
We are at a critical time to make important changes in our food system. Major movement is happening right now in the federal government to create the next farm bill. The reauthorization process only happens every five years.
Critically, the farm bill directly impacts how and where food is grown, what kind of food is grown, and more. This massive legislation is crucial to the health of each of us as individuals and as community members. Whether it is climate change, public health, or the recognition that we depend on the land, air, and water for our survival, this bill will have an impact.
Do you remember food scarcity issues at the height of the pandemic? Currently noticing costs going up at grocery stores? Know a farmer who works one or more off-farm jobs to make ends meet? All of that is greatly affected by the farm bill. More so, food connects us to the earth, history, culture, and each other.
The Farm Bill: Omnibus Legislation That Impacts Every Bite
The 2018 Farm Bill is 530 pages long. This length and density makes it nearly impossible for anyone to really be an expert.
In the spirit of thinking that everyone should know what the farm bill is and how it affects them, I want to map out how I am going into this learning process and how you can too.
Below are some wonderful resources to help you learn about the 2023 Farm Bill, sustainable food systems, ways to engage, and much more. No matter your understanding of policy or agriculture there is a place for you to get involved. I encourage us all to deepen our understanding of this movement!
Sustainable Agriculture and Farm Bill Background
- Ohio Agriculture: The Changing Contours of Farming: OEFFA’s Analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) five-year survey of agriculture.
- Marker Bills for the 2023 Farm Bill: OEFFA’s regularly-updated tracker of introduced legislation that may be incorporated into the new farm bill.
- Soil Health Benchmarks 2021 Study: Pasa’s report about 100+ farms and their direct experiences in building and preserving soil health.
- How Washington Bargained Away Rural America: An article in The American Prospect that explores why we need to de-consolidate our food systems and make them for the people.
Organizing and Narrative Resources
- Changing Our Narrative About Narrative: What “narrative” power is and how to build it. “We must remember that a few big clouds do not water the earth below them—millions of drops of rain do the watering.”
- At the Intersection of Power and Hope: Grassroots Policy Project’s framework of storytelling and narrative building that illustrates how communities can make change and use tactics to build impactful movements.
- Talking Climate in a Purple State: Dr. Katherine Hayhoe’s presentation to OSU’s Environmental Professionals Network, which highlights the science behind how our beliefs shape our identity and the key role values and solutions can play in our conversations about the climate crisis.
It is up to us to ensure that we meet the needs of our communities while acknowledging the importance of sustaining a healthy world. Our policy team is eager to answer your questions and provide further resources. If you want to shape the 2023 Farm Bill, we are here to help!
We are actively looking for community members to call their representatives, write a letter to the editor, and more. Read about our 2023 Farm Bill platform and look at our resources page to get started. Reach out to our team at firstname.lastname@example.org for support. We are stronger together!
The work on a transformational 2023 Farm Bill is underway as climate scientists, activists, food and agriculture businesses, community leaders, anti-monopoly advocates, and policymakers pool together ideas and input for the new legislation. The reauthorization of the farm bill is supposed to be completed by the end of September. Because of the fight over the country’s debt limit and partisan battles, it will likely take until the end of this year or early next before we have a new farm bill.
Despite a longer timeline, things are moving and we wanted to lay out the key marker bills OEFFA is supporting.
A marker bill is legislation that is introduced to advance policy proposals and assess their level of support, with the hope of making it into the first bill draft advanced by the leadership of the House and Senate Agriculture Committees.
- Increase investments in local and regional food systems
- Address consolidation in the food and agriculture system
- Invest in organic and sustainable research
- Promote soil health and climate resilience through conservation policy
- Provide more support for beginning and BIPOC farmers
Bills Supporting Local and Regional Food and Farming Systems
Local Food and Farms Act (LFFA) (S. 1205, H.R. 2723) Championed by Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown
This act would strengthen local and regional food system infrastructure and promote rural and urban community economic development. LFFA offers reforms that would make it easier for applicants to use the Local Agriculture Market Program (LAMP), Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP), and Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (GusNIP). Investments would be prioritized toward small producers and underserved areas.
Strengthening Local Meat Processing Act (SLPA) (S. 354, H.R. 945) Also being championed by Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown
SLPA promotes competition within agricultural markets and invests in economic development. The bill addresses critical livestock and poultry supply chain issues, advances training programs for resilient community food systems, and supports small meat and poultry processing plants.
The Farmers’ Market and Food Bank Local Revitalization Act of 2023 (H.R. 2378) Championed by Ohio Representative Marcy Kaptur
This bill would provide increased financial assistance for farmers’ markets and farmers’ market nutrition programs, and increase local agricultural production through food bank in-house production and local farmer contracting.
Bills Addressing Consolidation
Opportunities for Fairness in Farming (OFF) Act (S. 557, H.R. 1249)
This marker bill opposes the funneling of checkoff tax dollars into deceptive and anti-competitive lobbying groups. A call for increased transparency and accountability in commodity checkoff programs is central to this legislation.
Checkoff fees are deemed mandatory by the Department of Agriculture for certain commodities (corn, soybeans, beef, eggs, etc.). They fund boards and councils that research and market the commodity as a whole.
Farm System Reform Act of 2023 (S. 271)
This bill promotes marketplace competition and fairness. It would reduce monopolistic practices of meatpackers and corporate integrators, suspend large factory farms, or concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and support mandatory country-of-origin labeling requirements.
There will be other marker bills on crop insurance reform, but they have not been introduced yet. In the interim, check out OEFFA’s Crop Insurance Platform here.
Bills Supporting Organic and Sustainable Research
Seeds and Breeds for the Future (S. 2964)
This legislation promotes the development of regionally-adapted seed varieties to increase yields and resilience. This would support farmers through challenges with drought and varying growing conditions.
This bill would direct the agricultural research service to expand organic research. The legislation would also fund research projects that help farmers become more efficient, productive, and profitable.
Biochar Research Network Act (H.R. 1645)
This bill would create a national network to test biochar’s ability to absorb carbon and increase crop production.
This bipartisan legislation would support research into how agrivoltaic systems (land being used for agriculture and solar photovoltaic energy generation) can generate clean energy, keep farmland in production, and strengthen rural economies.
Organic Science and Research Investment Act (S – just introduced)
The Organic Science and Research Investment (OSRI) is Democrat-led legislation that would expand funding for USDA’s Organic Research and Extension Initiative, providing more grants to research agencies and universities. It would also require the USDA to study the feasibility of certifying more research land as organic and would create a grant program for producers transitioning to organic.
Bills Supporting Climate Resilience
Agriculture Resilience Act (ARA) (S. 1016, H.R. 1840)
This comprehensive bill is promoted to support farmers as the climate crisis expands and impacts their ability to produce and thrive. Six policy areas are prioritized: research; soil health; farmland protection and viability; pasture-based livestock; on-farm energy; and food waste.
Zero Food Waste Act (S. 177, H.R. 652)
This bill would divert food waste from landfills and ensure hungry Americans have access to food that is often thrown away.
Cultivating Organic Matter through the Promotion Of Sustainable Techniques (COMPOST) Act (S. 179, H.R. 4443)
COMPOST was introduced to redirect food waste away from landfills and promote local composting infrastructure. The bill would add composting as a conservation practice for the USDA’s conservation programs, in addition to providing funding for home, farm, and community-based compost projects.
Bills Supporting Beginning and BIPOC Farmers
Justice for Black Farmers Act (S. 96)
The introduced legislation would reform the USDA, provide debt relief, establish a farm conservation corps, and create a land grant program. It would also increase funding for programs that support all socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.
There will be more bills related to research, conservation, beginning and BIPOC farmers, consolidation, and climate introduced soon. This is a great opportunity to reach out to your members of Congress and let them know you want them to sign on in support of these marker bills.
If you are interested in doing that, please reach out to us at email@example.com and we would be glad to provide talking points and resources.
This post originally appeared on the Greater Cincinnati Regional Food Policy Council blog. It is the second one in their Farm Bill 2023 series that focuses on marker bills.
The Nutrition Title of the Farm Bill
Something you may not know is that the Farm Bill is categorized into twelve titles. Each title focuses on a category of legislative topics related to the food system at the federal level. The fourth title is the Nutrition Title. Our previous marker bill blog post highlighted marker bills from the other eleven titles. The Nutrition Title requires a blog post of its own, because this title receives a massive portion of the funding that is authorized by the Farm Bill.
As the chart adapted from National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC) shows, the Nutrition Title received over 75% of the projected funding from the 2018 Farm Bill. In addition to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which is one of the most well-known USDA programs, the Nutrition Title also includes:
- The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)
- Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP)
- Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (GusNIP) grants
- Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations and Other Territories
- Commodity Supplemental Food Program
- Community Food Projects
The Congressional Research Service has a primer on the Nutrition Title programs that provides some additional information.
Members of Congress have submitted several marker bills related to the Nutrition Title and its programs to date. More nutrition marker bills will probably be submitted by the middle of April 2023. Below, we’ve listed the Nutrition Title marker bills that have been submitted through April 6, 2023.
There’s Still Time to Contact Your Congress Members!
Before we jump to the marker bills, let’s first discuss what we can do with this information. The Farm Bill will not be reauthorized until September 2023. You can contact your Congress Members, even if they are not on an Agriculture Committee. Every Congress Member will vote to approve the bill drafts of the Farm Bill when they enter the chambers.
In addition, the Senate Committee is taking public comment, as is the House Committee. Again, you can submit your opinion, even if your Congress Members are not on either of the Congressional Agriculture Committees!
A collective voice saying similar things helps motivate Congress Members to listen to constituents and show support for topics that are important to those they should represent.
Spotlight on Three Nutrition Title Marker Bills
Among the dozens of marker bills we researched, the three below were among those that speak to some of the issues the Food Policy Council and its partners are working on in our region.
Date Introduced: June 23, 2021
Summary: This bill amends the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to require that supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits be calculated using the value of the low-cost food plan, and for other purposes.
Introduced by: Senator Kirsten Gillibrand with 6 Cosponsors
- 5 Democrats Cosponsors
- 1 Independent Cosponsor
Date Introduced: February 1, 2023
Summary: This bill amends the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to allow households with children with chronic medical conditions to deduct allowable medical expenses incurred by such household member that exceeds $35 per month.
Introduced by: Representative Shontel Brown with 7 Cosponsors (all Democrat)
Date Introduced: March 9, 2023
Summary: This bill amends the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to repeal the particular work requirement that disqualifies able-bodied adults for eligibility to participate in the supplemental nutrition assistance program.
Introduced by: Representative Barbara Lee with 41 Cosponsors (all Democrat)
2023 Nutrition Title Marker Bills by Topic
2023 Nutrition Title marker bills are listed below. They are loosely categorized by the nutrition program the bill highlights. Some marker bills cover several programs, so each bill is categorized under the bill’s primary program. Though this list may not be comprehensive, the vast majority of the marker bills submitted as part of the reauthorization process of the Farm Bill are included below, irrespective of partisan affiliation or other political perspective.
The Food Policy Council provides this information as an educational resource, and inclusion in this list does not indicate support by the Food Policy Council staff, partners, members, or supporters.
- Marker Bills Related to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
- Marker Bills Related to the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations and Other Territories
- Marker Bills Related to the Commodity Supplemental Food Program
- Marker Bills Related to the Community Food Projects
Marker Bills Related to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Bill Name (with link) Summary Improving Access to Nutrition Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to repeal the particular work requirement that disqualifies able-bodied adults for eligibility to participate in the supplemental nutrition assistance program. H.R. 1763 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to exclude from income for purposes of eligibility for the supplemental nutrition assistance program the basic allowance for housing received by members of the uniformed services. Jobs and Opportunities for SNAP Act A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to restore and standardize work requirements for able-bodied adults enrolled in the supplemental nutrition assistance program. America Works Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to standardize work requirements for able-bodied adults enrolled in the supplemental nutrition assistance program. SNAP Second Chance Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to limit the use of business integrity and reputation factors when determining the eligibility of a retail food store or a wholesale food concern to be approved to redeem supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits. ID for EBT Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to require States to include a photograph on electronic benefit cards issued to provide supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits. Let’s Get to Work Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to modify work requirements under the supplemental nutrition assistance program, and for other purposes. SNAP Theft Protection Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to provide for the reissuance to households supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits to replace benefits stolen by identity theft or typical skimming practices, and for other purposes. SNAP Back Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to repeal drug felon ban for participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008. Opportunity To Address College Hunger Act A bill to amend the Higher Education Act of 1965 to require institutions of higher education to provide notice to students receiving work-study assistance about potential eligibility for participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program, and for other purposes. SNAP Access for Medically Vulnerable Children Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to allow households with children with chronic medical conditions to deduct allowable medical expenses incurred by such household member that exceeds $35 per month. Closing the Meal Gap Act A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to require that supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits be calculated using the value of the low-cost food plan, and for other purposes.
Marker Bills Related to the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations and Other Territories
Bill Name (with link) Summary S. 949 (Senate Version) A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to transition the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the supplemental nutrition assistance program, and for other purposes. Puerto Rico Nutrition Assistance Fairness Act (House Version) A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to transition the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the supplemental nutrition assistance program, and for other purposes. Tribal Nutrition Improvement Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act to improve nutrition in tribal areas, and for other purposes.
Marker Bills Related to the Commodity Supplemental Food Program
Bill Name (with link) Summary H.R. 2287 A bill to provide for a limitation on availability of funds for US Department of Agriculture, Food Assistance and Nutrition Service, Commodity Assitance Program for fiscal year 2024. H.R. 2294 A bill to provide for a limitation on availability of funds for US Department of Agriculture, Food Assistance and Related Programs, Commodity Credit Corporation Export (Loans) Credit Guarantee Program Account for fiscal year 2024. Healthy Food Financing Initiative Reauthorization Act of 2023 (Senate Version) A bill to amend the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 to authorize mandatory funding for the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Healthy Food Financing Initiative Reauthorization Act of 2023 (House Version) A bill to amend the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 to reauthorize the Healthy Food Financing Initiative, and for other purposes.
Marker Bills Related to the Community Food Projects
Bill Name (with link) Summary Military Family Nutrition Access Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to exclude a basic allowance for housing from income for purposes of eligibility for the supplemental nutrition assistance program. H.R. 1765 A bill to amend the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 to repeal the limitation on the maximum deduction for shelter expenses allowable for determination of benefits under such Act. Food Deserts Act A bill to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to make grants to States to support the establishment and operation of grocery stores in underserved communities, and for other purposes.
Nutrition Marker Bills Unrelated to the Farm Bill
The majority of the US’s federal nutrition programs fall under the purview of the USDA. However, not all USDA Nutrition Programs are directed by the Farm Bill. Confusing, huh?
The general rule of thumb is: if the primary focus of the nutrition program is to feed children, then the program is directed by the federal package called The Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act, rather than by the Farm Bill. Examples of nutrition programs that are not part of the Farm Bill are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP).
Congress Members have submitted marker bills focused on these other nutrition programs to the Congressional Agriculture Committees (who also oversee Nutrition Programs), and these marker bills may influence the conversations and decisions that shape the Farm Bill. For that reason, below we include a few of those nutrition-focused marker bills submitted during this round of Farm Bill reauthorization but not strictly related to the Farm Bill.
Bill Name (with link) Summary S. 984 A bill to amend the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to permit video or telephone certifications under the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children, and for other purposes. S. 974 A bill to amend the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to require the Secretary of Agriculture to make publicly available information on infant formula procurement under the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children. Farm Fresh Food for Families Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to modernize the farmers’ market nutrition program under the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children, and for other purposes. Helping Schools Feed Kids Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Keep Kids Fed Act of 2022 to extend additional reimbursement rates for certain child nutrition programs, and for other purposes. Protecting Children with Food Allergies Act A bill to amend the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to require the provision of training and information to certain personnel relating to food allergy identification and response, and for other purposes. Healthy Meals Help Kids Learn Act of 2023 A bill to amend the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to increase reimbursement rates of school meals, and for other purposes.
Want to get into even more of the details?
We have a “living document” tracking submitted marker bills:
This post originally appeared on the National Organic Coalition (NOC) blog.
Twenty six farmers, scientists, policy advocates and organic company representatives from the National Organic Coalition advocated for organic agriculture last week in Washington, D.C. On Wednesday, we criss-crossed Capitol Hill, where we met with 56 Congressional Offices. 24 meetings were with Members of Congress (or their staff) who sit on the House and Senate Agriculture Committees – the committees responsible for writing the 2023 Farm Bill.
During visits with congressional offices, we focused on four themes to advance organic in the 2023 Farm Bill:
- A proposed Opportunities in Organic Program, which will establish a suite of flexible, easy-to-access tools to reduce barriers to organic agriculture.
- Strengthening organic integrity, which is all about ensuring the continuous improvement of USDA’s organic standards.
- Expanding organic research, which will provide tools to address production, marketing and environmental challenges.
- Strengthening USDA’s conservation programs for organic farmers, which highlights that organic farming is climate-smart and environmentally sound.
NOC has developed a detailed list of organic priorities for every title of the Farm Bill.
NOC also met with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs, Jenny Moffitt, where we had a productive conversation about the organic dairy crisis, future updates to the organic standards, and the USDA’s new Organic Transition Initiative. NOC thanked Under Secretary Moffitt for championing organic agriculture within USDA and for the agency’s work to finalize the Origin of Livestock and Strengthening Organic Enforcement rules.
The photos below show some of the highlights from our time in DC.
Follow NOC on social media (Facebook @NationalOrganicCoalition and Twitter @NationalOrganic) to see updates from last week’s Congressional and USDA meetings.
The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) was signed into law on August 16, 2022. Among its other aims, the act includes investments in federal programs that address the climate crisis, like those in support of climate-smart agriculture practices. As such, part of the IRA’s $19.5 billion package includes funding for oversubscribed conservation programs implemented by the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). In fiscal year 2023, this means $850 million will be available for the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP), Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP), Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), and Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP).
Additional Investments for Thousands of Farmers and Millions of Acres
In total, the IRA will provide an additional $1.4 billion for ACEP, $4.95 billion for RCPP, $8.45 billion for EQIP, and $3.25 billion for CSP. The funding begins in fiscal year 2023 and will continue to rapidly build over the span of four years. Providing direct mitigation benefits, these programs will support climate-smart agriculture through financial and technical assistance to help farmers advance on-farm conservation practices.
Formerly, there have been about twice as many farmers applying for CSP as those who receive funding. The IRA will help to address the issue of oversubscription and underfunding. According to the USDA, “These additional investments are estimated to help hundreds of thousands of farmers and ranchers apply conservation to millions of acres of land.”
What are Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices?
To date, the IRA is the most significant federal investment in climate-smart agriculture. It bolsters existing USDA programs that mitigate the impacts of the climate crisis while strengthening a farm operation. So, what are examples of climate-smart agriculture?
Climate-smart agriculture practices are numerous and varied. For farmers, they include activities like resource-conserving crop rotations, buffer strips, and even mulching to improve soil health. Climate-smart agricultural examples for ranchers include rotational grazing and forage plantings that help to increase organic matter in depleted soil.
CSP at a Glance
The CSP helps forest and agricultural producers take their existing conservation efforts and climate-smart practices to the next level. Covering more acres on a multi-year basis than other conservation programs, CSP encourages farmers and ranchers to protect natural resources and improve the environment—while supporting profitability.
The technical and financial assistance targets five key conservation areas:
- Air, soil, and water quality
- Carbon sequestration
- Biodiversity and pollinator and wildlife habitat
- Natural resource concerns in a particular area (i.e., erosion, water quality)
- Water and energy conservation
Agricultural producers who make use of eligible climate-smart agricultural practices can apply for CSP funding. The enrollment process is competitive. Applications are ranked based on conservation plans, which are developed with an NRCS agent. Fortunately, as a result of the IRA, more producers in 2023 will have access to conservation assistance and funding from the CSP.
Get Paid for the Climate-Smart Practices You Use
“The Inflation Reduction Act provided a once-in-a-generation investment in conservation on working lands, and we want to work with agricultural and forest landowners to invest in climate-smart practices that create value and economic opportunity for producers,” said Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack. Payment amounts vary and are based on conservation practices, but all CSP contracts pay a minimum annual payment of $1,500 (up to approximately $40,000 a year).
If you control land and its production, you’re eligible for CSP. This includes landowners, renters, and owners who crop share. To take advantage of CSP’s increased funding as a result of the IRA, it’s imperative to apply by your state’s ranking dates. In Ohio, the first application cutoff date for the IRA-CSP funding pool is April 7, 2023.
To begin the application process, contact your local NRCS office. Along with an agent, you can use Ohio’s IRA CSP activity list to determine eligibility for the program. Based on the climate-smart agriculture activities you use and plan to use, you’ll work with an agent to complete the Conservation Assessment Ranking Tool (CART). Your conservation efforts will be assessed against those from other applicants. If you rank highly, you will be offered a five-year contract and funding. Historically underserved farmers receive special consideration.
The Benefits of CSP
Thousands of people voluntarily enroll in CSP—a number that will be even higher as a result of IRA funding. They often see real results, like improved wildlife habitats, increased resiliency to extreme weather and market volatility, and a decreased spending on agricultural inputs. Do you engage with CSP and the use of climate-smart agriculture practices? If so, please contact us to share your experiences. The 2023 Farm Bill provides an opportunity for us to continue advocating for NRCS programs like CSP.
Written by Ricardo Salvador, 2023 OEFFA Conference Keynote
The upcoming reauthorization of the farm bill will be the 23rd iteration of this legislation. According to Jonathan Coppess and Chris Adamo—Vermont Law School teachers of a course on the “modern farm bill”—this version could be revolutionary. They see the main driver of this potential departure being the role agriculture could play in mitigating climate change.
A Push for Business As Usual—But a Need for Something New
A problem with this otherwise sensible prediction is that it would require genuine change in farm practices and the policies that incentivize and support the structure of farming.
Already, the incoming chair of the House Agriculture Committee is on record stating that he “will not have us suddenly incorporate buzzwords like regenerative agriculture into the farm bill or overemphasize climate.” The president of the Iowa Farm Bureau—the most influential state chapter of the powerful national federation—wants the bill to stay the same, and continue to distribute public largesse without any expectation that it will return verifiable environmental benefits.
Of greatest concern is that in its recent announcements of nearly $3 billion in “climate smart commodity” awards, the USDA has amply demonstrated that the politics of farm country and agribusiness will dilute the Department’s ability to promote and support effective climate change action through agriculture.
There is a scientific component to this, but the most important factor is political. A patchwork of “climate friendly” voluntary practices used during any given production year will have limited ability to reverse greenhouse gas contributions—regardless of farmers’ positive intent. For this sector to meaningfully reverse its emissions, the massive changes in land use and row-crop and livestock production that are needed can only be brought about by the wide-reaching legislative power of the farm bill.
Revolutionary Farm Bills Throughout History
This brings us to the Coppess and Adamo analysis. On their telling, there have only been three truly revolutionary farm bills. They define these as legislation that completely shifted the direction of farm policy.
The most recent was the disastrous “Freedom to Farm” bill of 1996. It attempted to eliminate farm subsidies through a transitional program, but instead led to the consolidation of farmland into larger operations, and the failure and displacement of thousands of family farms. The system of government support was rapidly restored in the subsequent 2002 Farm Bill.
The first farm bill in 1933 was revolutionary precisely because it recognized the government’s essential role in agriculture: to manage the market for agricultural products in a way that farmers could not accomplish on their own. Farmers, and all of U.S. society, have lived since then with the reality of the determinative role of government programs in farming. All farm bill debates have largely been about whom and what to support with this massive public intervention (the current bill is a $428 billion package of tax dollars).
This brings up the remaining revolutionary farm bill, and a lesson for how to break the impasse created by powerful organizations and corporate interests dependent on government support—and which therefore have a stake in shaping and controlling “status quo” farm bills. The 1985 Food Security Act expanded the traditional interest groups vying for public tax dollars by bringing in the anti-hunger community.
This is what Coppess and Adamo identify as the beginning of the “modern” farm bill era, since the “Farm Bill Coalition” created to pass that bill has not only persisted, but the new “nutrition programs” they sponsored have become the lion’s share of the bill, capturing 76.1 percent of the most recent farm bill spending. The “farm side” and “nutrition side” need one another to be politically viable. And this is the ultimate lesson that Coppess and Adamo drew: it is all about the coalitions you bring to the debate.
Shaking Up the Status Quo
At the Union of Concerned Scientists, we have been working with a large number of partners, including OEFFA, to shape a new, broader coalition for the farm bill debate. By definition, a status quo approach to the farm bill begins with the existing legislation as a template, and is about making minimal adjustments.
A transformational approach calls for us to ask what we need from a 21st century food system, and to then craft that legislation without the constraints of programs designed to answer different questions from a different era.
The new coalition is led by the notion that many have a stake, in particular groups representing large communities historically excluded from shaping farm and food policy. We see the bill as a vehicle to center the racial justice issues accounting for farming being a dominantly white occupation, with the labor side of the farm and food system being a conspicuously Brown and Black work force.
This is why the coalition marks the return of the labor sector, which was an essential partner with farmers—as a grassroots, working-class coalition—in shaping the original agricultural policies embedded in the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act.
No matter your perspective, we can agree this is indisputably a transformational approach to the traditional “farm bill debate.” Accordingly, the coalition’s priority demands are seen as a package, a set of issues so interrelated they cannot be effectively addressed by breaking them apart. They are:
- Center racial justice
- End hunger
- Meet the climate crisis head on
- Increase access to nutritious food
- Ensure safety and dignity for food and farm workers
- Protect farmers and consumers
- Ensure the safety of our food supply
All of us who are involved are pragmatic, and understand this approach is a long shot. This is because of powerful entrenched interests (the agribusiness lobby is larger than the defense lobby), and not because this suite of issues is not well-framed, urgent, and relevant to the times in which we live.
The status quo interests have vulnerabilities, key among which is the difficulty they will have in making the straight-faced argument that they need more of the lavish public support that has led to historical farm profits and farmland values. Coppess, who has authored what I consider to be the landmark book on the farm bill’s history, has been warning Midwest farm groups that the sailing might not be smooth for the “bipartisan approach” (code word for status quo) that such groups would like to see in the bill.
At the upcoming OEFFA conference, we will discuss the prospects, strategy, and progress of this transformational campaign, and the key role that OEFFA can play in advancing this work. After all, the farm bill is legislation in which every person in the nation has a stake, and no effort to take part in the farm bill process can be credible without the genuine and active participation of farmer groups.
Ricardo Salvador is an agronomist and the director and senior scientist of the Food and Environment Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists. His keynote address, A Transformational Idea for the 2023 Farm Bill, will take place on Saturday, February 18 at the 2023 OEFFA Conference. Learn more about OEFFA’s 2023 Farm Bill Platform.